[RC5] Birthday Paradox

Greg Hewgill gregh at lightspeed.net
Sat Mar 21 23:03:15 EST 1998

>From Tim Charron:
>There are 2^30 DPs, however, there are actually 2^97 different points

Thanks, I see now. Unfortunately, my perl program ran into, uh, precision
problems when I tried to make it calculate the 50% crossover point with N =
2^97 ... it tried to tell me there was no chance of duplicates, ever! :)

>There's a shortcut to calculate the 50% mark.  When there are "n"
>possible values, then once k=sqrt(n*pi/2) points are encountered, the
>chances of a duplicate are 50%.

What is the derivation for this shortcut? This works for N = 365:
floor(sqrt(N*pi/2)) = 23, but for N = 2^30, floor(sqrt(N*pi/2)) = 41068,
which doesn't agree with my perl program's result of 38582. Now, I suspect
my perl program is affected by accumulated roundoff error for N = 2^30,
perhaps I'll dig up an arbitrary precision math library to satisfy my
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